The Federal Republic of Brazil better known as Brazil, originally was inhabited by the amerindians, was the piece of the American continent that corresponded to the kingdom of Portugal after the Treaty of Tordesillas. In agreement with the Constitution of 1988, Brazil is a presidentialist federal republic, although the Brazilian legal system follows the Roman-germanic tradition. The executive authority is exercised by the President, who accumulates the functions of government and Chief of State. The President is chosen every four years, by means of the system of second electoral round. At the same time of the presidential elections, the National Congress is elected, base of the legislative power, and divided in two parliamentary houses: the House of Representatives, with a mandate of four years, and the Federal Senate, whose members have a mandate of eight years, renewing a third and two thirds every four years.
Brazil is the most extensive country of South America and fifth of the world. It has limits with all the South American countries, except Chile and Ecuador. The north limits with Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana, Surinam and the French Guyana; to the south with Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay; to the east with the Atlantic Ocean; and to the west with Bolivia and Peru. It is a country that enters the rank of tropical countries since it is on the equatorial line. Brazil includes the South hemisphere and the North hemisphere, nevertheless the weather seasons are not felt in a radical way. Great part of its territory is covered by the Amazonian forest. Thanks to this and to its climate, it is the country with more animal species in the world. Its capital is Brasilia that replaced Rio de Janeiro in 1960. Having been Salvador de Bahia the first national capital, Brasilia is the third city in being the capital of Brazil.
REGISTRY SYSTEM OF PEOPLE
1.- Specialized organism:
In Brazil each State has its own civil registry. The civil registrars are in charge of registering the vital acts through a person’s lifetime. Civil registrars must be lawyers, with public faith, and must facilitate access to the population and secure the books and archives they store.
The State organ in charge of supervising the civil registrars is the Judiciary Power through the respective tribunal according to its geographical location in the province and district. The competition to select civil registrars is done by the Judiciary Power, with the participation of the Brazilian Attorney League, the Public Ministry, a notary and a registrar.
3.- Organizational chart of :
In every municipality there is at list one civil registrar
4.-Name of the Identity Document:
“La Cedula de Identidade” also known as «Carteira de Identidade» o «Registro Geral» (RG)
- Birth certificate
- Marriage certificate
- Death certificate
6.- Main Laws.-
Decree 9886 of 7.3.1888 – The universality of the civil registry is originated with the catholic church and it establishes the mandatory nature of birth, marriage and death registry.
With the independence of Brazil in November 15 of 1889 was established that all the Brazilian local administrations must have at least one Civil Registry Office. The great cities created mega office or institutions, whereas in small and medium cities the civil Registry was a sum of functions.
Actions taken by the government to attain universal registration:
- Creation of the Website: Human rights for the Indigenous people that looks to facilitate the provision of basic civil documentation through the use of traveling posts (movable units, movable registries).
- The beginning of the National Plan of Human rights, a campaign at the national level that looks to:
- Give each citizen the fundamental documents of citizenship (birth certificate, identity card, labor certificate, electoral title, and, the certificate of military enlisting/certificate of military reservist or document that excuses or exception.
- Introduce the gratuity for the birth and death certificates to all citizens.
- Derogate any discriminatory norm that affects the access to the registry.
- Exclude the term “color” of all report on population and public data base.
- Promote the creation and installation of the Councils of the Black Community in state and city levels.
- Support the definition of action for the progress of the black community.
- Promote and award to private companies that practice positive discrimination.
- Take action for the equitable treatment of the population and assure equal social access to the social programs and policies.