Colombia, officially Republic of Colombia, is a country located in the north-western zone of South America, with Bogota as its capital city, limiting to the east with Venezuela and Brazil, to the south with Peru and Ecuador and to the northwest with Panama; it shares marine limits in the Caribbean with Panama, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras, Jamaica, Haiti, Dominican Republic and Venezuela, and with Panama, Costa Rica and Ecuador in the Pacific. Its surface is of 2.070.408 km ², of which 1.141.748 km ² correspond to their continental territory and the rest 928,660 km ² correspond to their marine extension. Is the only country in South America that has its coasts in the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea where islands are part of their diverse territory, like the Archipelago of San Andres and Providencia. Colombia is the fourth biggest country territorially in South America, the third in population in Latin America and is 19th in the list of the richest countries in biodiversity of the world.
Colombia is recognized in the world for the production of coffee, the exports of flowers and a rich culture in music and folkloric dance.
In agreement with the current Constitution (of 1991) Colombia is a Social State of Law, organized in the form of unitary republic with political centralization and administrative decentralization, where the public power is divided in three branches, which are legislative, executive and judicial and diverse control units like the General Office of the Public Prosecutor of the Nation, the Office of the General Advocate Judge, the Contraloría, the Public Ministry, the “Veedurías Ciudadanas”, and where the executive maintains a certain superiority.
REGISTRY SYSTEM OF PEOPLE
1.- Specialized organism:
The “Registraduria Nacional del Estado Civil”(RNEC) is the national organism that has by assignment the direction and organization of the elections, the civil registry and the identification of the people. The RNEC counts on the National Direction of Civil Registry that is the one in charge to centralize the general information of births, marriages, deaths, and other acts and vital facts.
The Electoral Organization is integrated by the Electoral National Court, the “Registraduria Nacional del Estado Civil” and by the National Committee of Electoral Monitoring. This composition and its functions are defined in the Constitution of 1991. From 2003, the Electoral National Council is chosen by the Congress of the Republic for a period of 4 years, whereas the National Recorder of the Civil State is elected by the presidents of the Constitutional Court, the Supreme Court of Justice and the State Council.
3.- Organizational chart of the “Registraduria Nacional del Estado Civil” (RNEC):
The RNEC is constituted by the delegated “Registraduria” in Electoral matters and the delegated “Registraduria” for the Civil Registry and Identification. The first has under its charge the Direction of Electoral Management and the Direction of Electoral roll and the latter has under its charge the National Direction of Identification and the National Direction of Civil Registry.
Functions of the civil registry, citizen identification and electoral organization fall into the same organization. This has favored the administration and the handling of the processes and the information for the harmonious performance of all the set (integration of archives and data bases, reduction of costs and time in the preparation of documents and the Electoral National Census, among others).
5. Identity documents in the Colombian system:
Certificate of Birth, Certificate of Marriage, Certificate of Death and Identity Card.
6.-Name of the Identity Document:
The Identity card is the name of the identification document.
All persons older than 18 years old, resident in the country, have the obligation to be in possession of a valid and in goods state Identity card her Certificate of effective identity and in good state. By means of a reform in 1995, it was authorized to the National “Registraduría” to reform the identity card and to introduce automated mechanisms for the digital classification. The identity card is a document used not only to vote, but also to identify the citizen in all civil acts.
Related to civil Registry such as Certificate of Birth, Certificate of Marriage, Certificate of Death, Adoption, Cancellation of the civil Registry, among others, and the expedition of the Identity card.
Avenida Calle 26 #51-50 CAN Bogotá Colombia
9.- Main Laws.-
- Polítical Constitution of the Republic of Colombia of 1991
- Decree 2737 of 1989 – Request of the Registry of Birth
- Law 89 of 1948 by which the Electoral Organization is created
- Decree 1260 – Statute of the Registry of the Civil Status of the People (1970)
- Decree 1694 –Regulates the issuance and eligibility of the identity card as the sole document suitable for identification (1993)
- Law 96 of 1985 and Decree 2241 of 1986 by which the Electoral Code is created and the Electoral roll is recomposed
- Decree 290 of 17 of February 1999 – Registry of displaced persons
- Decree 999 of 1988 – Name changes
- Decree 158 of 1994 – Inscription by mail
- Project of Technological Modernization of 1997
- Administrative reconstruction of 2001
- Legislative Act No. 1 of 3 of July 2003