El Salvador is a sovereign state located in Central America which lies between Guatemala and Honduras. It is the smallest and most densely populated country in Central America.
El Salvador achieved his independence from Spain in 1821 along with Guatemala and decided to stop being part of the Federal Republic of Central America in 1839. Previously, during the pre-Columbian period, it was known with the name of Cuscatlan that means “Place of beautiful things” in Nauta language.
The legal basic order of the country is based on the Constitution of 1983. It establishes that El Salvador is a presidential representative democratic republic with three organisms: Executive Organism headed by the President of the Republic and his Board. The Legislative Organism called the Legislative Assembly of El Salvador (one Lower House Chamber) with 84 deputies, and the Judiciary Organism that consists of 15 Magistrates, being one of them elected as President of the Judiciary Organism.
A civil war that lasted 12 years took approximately 75,000 lives and finally ended on January 16, 1992 when the Government and the guerrilla signed both the Peace Agreements that brought military, social and political modifications. The new National Civil Police, the Procurator’s office for the Defense of Human Rights and The Supreme Electoral Tribunal were created by the Peace Agreement of Chapultepec (1992). Also, thanks to this agreement, the left opposition group was recognized as political party with the name of Farabundo Martí Group for the National Liberation (FMLN) and the army role was re-defined being dedicated to the defense of the sovereignty and the integration of the territory. Also, some security bodies that were under the army were terminated, such as the National Guard, the Public Treasury’s Police and the Special Battalion formed to maintain the war against the rebellion of the 80’s.
REGISTRY SYSTEM OF PEOPLE
1.- Specialized organism:
The National Registry of Individuals is the organism in charge of recording, maintaining and issuing all the information about the legal facts and legal acts that may constitute, modify or extinguish the familiar status of individuals and about other legal facts and acts determined by law, in a permanent and updated manner, and also, to provide facilities to reach and consult said information. Besides, it is in charge of issuing the Unique Identity Document (DUI).
2.- Dependency: The National Registry of Individuals is an entity with public right and autonomous with respect to technical and administrative aspects.
3.- Organizational chart:
The National Registry of Individuals RNPN consists of two systems: The National Registry of Individuals and the Registry for the Unique Identity Document.
The RNPN is organized according to the following hierarchy:
I. Board of Directors.
II. National President-Registrar.
III. National Adjunct Registrar.
IV. Executive Director.
VI. Consultancy and other dependencies.
The municipalities are the organisms responsible of carry out registration. They handle the primary documentation with respect to birth, marriage, divorce and deceases certificates. A Familiar Status Registrar is the head of these offices. Finally, the Electoral Registry Office of the Supreme Electoral Tribunal (TSE) is responsible for the elaboration of the list of electors (electoral roll and registration)
- To administer the National Registry of Individuals system.
- To administer the Registry for the Unique Identity Document system and other registry systems stated by law.
- To keep all the information regarding to the civil or familiar status of individuals on a regular basis and to create suitable systems to process and preserve said information.
- To certify officially the facts and acts related to the civil status of individuals through the issuance of certificates and resolutions.
- To facilitate information to the National Civil Police, the General Prosecution Office of the Republic and the Judiciary Organism for the investigation of criminal facts.
- To provide the Supreme Electoral Tribunal with the necessary information for the registration of persons in the Electoral Registry, and to inform about deceases.
- To order the replacement of files in the Registry that may be partial or totally damaged or destroyed for any reason. (database regarding to birth certificates is delivered to municipalities upon requisition).
- To participate in the elaboration of vital statistics of the country and provide the State organisms the pertinent statistic information that contributes in establishing the policy about population.
5. Identity documents in the Salvadorian system:
6.- Name of the Identity Document: Unique Identity Document (DUI). This document will be mandatory for all Salvadorian citizens who had reached the full legal age. These persons must request it within the fifteen working days that follow to the date when they reached majority, or when it had expired.
The implementation of DUI as identity document and requirement for voting represented an improvement for both the citizens and the institutions responsible of keeping the civil and electoral registries.
Torre RNPN, Col. Gral. Manuel José Arce C. Douglas Vladimir Varela and Caballería Avenue.
9.- Main legislation.-
- The Constitution modification in 1983: the Supreme Electoral Tribunal was created (Legislative Decree No.64 from October 31, 1991).
- The issuance of a new Electoral Code (Legislative Decree No.417, from December 14, 1992).
- Creation of the National Registry of Individuals (Legislative Decree No.488, October 27, 1995).
- Temporary Law of Familiar Registry and the Matrimony Patrimonial Provisions (Legislative Decree No.496, November 9, 1995).
- RNPN’s Organic Law (Legislative Decree No.552, December 21, 1995).
- Regulation of RNPN’s Organic Law (Executive Decree No.34, May 23, 2000.
- Special Law that rules the issuance of the DUI (Legislative Decree No.581, October 18, 2001.
- Modifications in the Electoral Code from 1992, regarding to RNPN, Electoral Registry, DUI (Legislative Decree No.132, September 18, 2003)